After World War I, patriotic consciousness in China focused on treaties, now widely known as “unequal treaties.” The Nationalist Party and the Communist Party would compete to convince public opinion that their approach would be more effective.  Germany was forced to end its rights, the Soviet Union abandoned them, and the United States organized the Washington conference to negotiate them. After Chiang Kai-shek proclaimed a new national government in 1927, the Western powers quickly offered diplomatic recognition, causing fear in Japan.  The new government told the major powers that China had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties and that time had elapsed for such treaties, and demanded that they all renegotiate on an equal footing. .